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Read the fol lowing passages carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words are given in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.


India is a country of villages. Rural population still dominates the urban population as far as the number is considered. This is despite the fact that there is rampant migration of rural families to urban centres. Generally, the gains of being a unit of the urban population are less than the disadvantages and risks that are in-built in the urban life. Crime, riots, etc are some of the examples of such risks of urban life. The forces that generate conditions conducive to crime and riots are stronger in urban communities than in rural areas. Urban living is more anonymous living. It often releases the individual from community restraints more common in tradition-oriented societies. But more freedom from constraints and controls also provides greater freedom to deviate. And living in the more impersonalized, formally controlled urban society means that regulatory orders of conduct are often directed by distant bureaucrats. The police are strangers executing these prescriptions on an anonymous set of subjects. Minor offences in small town or village are often handled without resort to official police action. As disputable as such action may seem to be, it results in fewer recorded violations of the law compared to those in the big cities. Although perhaps causing some decision difficulties for the police in small town, formal and objective law enforcement is not always acceptable to the villagers. Urban area with mass population, greater wealth, more commercial establishments and more products of our technology also provide more frequent opportunities for theft. Victims are impersonalized, property is insured, consumer goods in more abundance are vividly displayed and are more portable. The crime rate increases despite formal moral education given in schools.

Question : 1

Which of the following would be the best title for the above passage?

a) Lure of Village Life

b) Rural-Urban Rift

c) Hazards of Urban Life

d) Crime and Punishment

e) Urban Crimes and their Reasons

Answer: (c)

The passage presents a comparative sketch of rural and urban life focussing on the risks associated with the urban life.

Question : 2

The passage mainly emphasises the

a) need for formal moral education to be given in schools

b) reasons for growing crime rate in urban centres as compared to that in rural areas

c) increasing crime rate in rural areas

d) comparative account of wealth in rural and urban areas

e) None of these

Answer: (b)

Question : 3

The author thinks that risks and disadvantages are

a) outweigh the gains of rural life

b) surpassed by the gains of urban life

c) almost negligible in rural life

d) more than the gains in urban life

e) None of these

Answer: (d)

Generally, the gains of living in urban areas are less than the disadvantages and risks that are in-built in urban life.

Question : 4

Which of the following is a characteristic of an urban setting?

a) Less forceful social control

b) Minimal opportunities of crime due to better law enforcement

c) Deviation from freedom

d) Unreported minor crimes

e) Fewer recorded violations of the law Minimal = very small in size or amount; as small as possible

Answer: (a)

Urban living often releases the individual from community restraints.

Question : 5

Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage?

a) Small communities have more minor crimes than in urban centres.

b) Urban crimes cannot be prevented.

c) Lack of personal contacts increases crimes in urban areas.

d) The display of consumer goods is the main cause of crime.

e) Police in urban areas settle minor disputes without official action.

Answer: (c)

Life in urban society is more impersonalized.

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