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statement & arguments & IT'S TYPES
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statement & arguments Topic-wise Types, Definitions, Important fact & Techniques with Short Tricks & Tips useful for all competitive Examinations
"Statement and Arguments" Verbal reasoning Types, Shortcut's, Techniques, Tricks & Tips PDF:
"An argument is a statement or series of statements in which a certain point of view is put up, expressing different opinions for or against something."
Argument is very important part of analytical reasoning as all possible types of questions from analytical reasoning like inference, assumptions, course of action, syllogism, etc., are in some way related to argumentation. This is the reason why arguments are called backbone of analytical reasoning, Practice all types of "Statement & Arguments" problems with fully solved solutions which you will find under Verbal Reasoning.
The candidates are required to check the force fullness of the given arguments i.e., if they are weak or strong.
Questions asked from this chapter are basically based on following format as shown below,
- Statement :
- Arguments :
- I. Yes, .....................
- II. No, .....................
A positive or negative point of an argument is a view on a certain subject, supported by evidences.
Let's start discussing about the concepts of "Statements and Arguments" one by one:
In this discussion we will come to learn most basic concepts, feartures, answering steps, explanations based on the facts & standards given for our better understandings to choose the correct choose. The followings are,
- Technical Aspect of an Argument
- Steps to Check Force Fullness of Arguments
- Different types of questions in this topic
What is called "Technical Aspect of an Argument"?
In technical terms, an argument may be said to be a series of two or more phrases, clauses, sentences that include a request/conclusion. Such a conclusion is arrived at with the guidance of one or more than one statement which may be called the premise/hypothesis. Apart from this, an argument has hidden premises also and such hidden bases are called assumptions.
How to check "Force Fullness of Arguments" in step by step process?
The process of checking forcefulness involves in finding out the given argument is either storng or weak. The process has to be done by following four steps,
Now, to check the force fullness, we follow a four-step plan as given below
- Step I - Doing preliminary screening.
- Step II - Checking the correctness of the argument.
- Step III - Checking the desirability in case of positive arguments and harmfulness in case of negative arguments.
- Step IV - Checking the proper connectivity of argument with the given statement.
Let's discuss Step-I: "Doing Introductory Screening"
This is the first level test. At this level, one is required to detect certain kind of arguments that can be declared weak externally much thinking. The deficiency of such arguments are exposed by having a mere look and this is the reason that such arguments do not qualify for further tests (Steps II, III, IV).
1. What to do when an argument is "Ambiguous"?
Such arguments leave a vague and confused impression on our mind. In fact, it is not clear how such arguments are related to the given statement.
2. What if when the arguments are "Too easy"?
Such arguments are in the form of a small sentence, which is not supported by any facts or established motion. But the absence of facts or rooted notions does not mean that they are amphibolic. In fact, they are very much clear and properly related to the statement but they are simple assertions and only because of this integrity they are weak.
3. How to handle when "Unnecessary Arguments" occurs?
Such arguments only give a glance at the theme given in the statement but do not do a deep-down analysis of it. This is the reason they are vulnerable and are not reduced to more tests.
4. What to do with when thrown back "Question Bach Form" arises?
If the given argument is in the form of a question-driven back by the arguer, then it is reported weak.
Will now Start Step II: "Checking the Correctness of Arguments"
Step II is the second level test. Arguments qualifying for this level test are those which pass the test at step I. It means such arguments cannot be declared weak in preliminary screening. Further, if an argument is declared correct at the second level test, it does not mean that it is strong. In fact, passing the second level means qualifying for the third level test (Step III). Hence, if an argument is declared correct in step II, it goes for step III test, otherwise, it is declared weak and automatically disqualifies from being tested at step III.
- An Argument will pass the Step II Test in the Subsequent Cases
⇒ What if the Argument Favours an Undeniable Fact
A given argument is correct, if it is an established fact that is what is said through the argument is correct. Point to be noted that an established fact may be scientifically established or it may be universally acknowledged.
⇒ What if the Argument is Authorized to be Correct by ‘Experience’
Sometimes, the given argument does not support any established fact but our previous experiences tell us that it is correct.
⇒ What if the Argument is Authorized to be Correct by ‘Logic and Common Sense’
Sometimes a new type of argument comes before you. Such arguments are neither established facts nor can experiences be applied over them as in practice no such cases could have occurred. In such cases, only your logic and common sense work.
⇒ What if the Argument Supports ‘Prevailing Perceptions of Truth’
Certain things/ideas are universally accepted: they are acknowledged by society and this is the reason why they are considered as the unquestionable notion of truth.
In fact, in many ways, they have very much similarity with ‘established facts’.
If an argument supports such ideas/notions, they are considered correct.
- An Argument will not pass step II Test and is Certified Weak in the following Cases
⇒ What if the Argument Goes Against ‘Established facts’
When an argument goes against an established fact, it will be rejected.
⇒ What if the Argument is nor Authorizedto be Correct by ‘Experience’
When our previous experience tells us that the given argument is not correct, then the argument is declared weak.
⇒ What if the Given Argument Violates ‘Prevailing Perceptions of Truth’
When the given argument violates the prevailing notions of truth, it is declared weak and is, therefore, rejected.
⇒ What if the Argument is Based on ‘Assumptions on Individual Perception’
In certain cases, argument increases/prohibits certain actions which are not universally accepted, which are not properly backed up by previous experience or logic. Such arguments are based on assumptions or individual perceptions of the author. Such arguments are weak and are therefore rejected.
⇒ What if an Argument is Based on ‘Examples of Analogy’
Keep this in your mind that example/analogy based arguments are ‘Bad Arguments’. If someone did something in the past, it does not mean the same is pursuable. Such arguments are weak and are, therefore, rejected.
Now will see Step III: "Checking the Desirability in case of Positive Argument"
(Harmfulness in Case of Negative Argument)
This is the third level test for which those arguments qualify that were declared correct at step II test. Point to be noted that correctness of an argument at Step II does not mean that argument is a strong one but it does mean that the particular argument has been given a go-ahead by Step I and II tests to be further tested at Step III.
In other words, the correctness of Step II test means the given argument is a probably a strong argument at Step II and it may be declared definitely strong if it passes Step III and Step IV tests successfully.
Let's see Step IV: "Checking the proper Connectivity of Argument and Statement"
At Step IV proper connectivity on the proper relation between the argument and statement is checked. At this Step, those arguments are tested that passed Step I, II and III tests but the questions is ‘ what is proper relation’? In fact, a statement and an argument are said to be properly related, if
- The argument pinpoints the main issue involved.
- The argument is balanced.
Now, the question is 'what is the balanced argument’? Remember, a balanced argument should be well matched and in proportion with the intensity of issue given in the statement.
e.g., If an argument is given in favour of cutting a potato with a sword such argument is a completely imbalanced argument. Why so? Because if a knife is enough to cut potato, then why use a sword for it. Doesn’t it seem ill-matched? Definitely using a very big tool for a simple issue will be called imbalanced act.
Similarly, using a very small tool for a very big issue (like cutting a big tree with a knife) is also an imbalanced act.
Now, after understanding the meaning of connectivity or proper relation between arguments and statement, we are ready for final level test for those arguments that passed Step III will checked in step IV. For your better understanding keep this below given flowchart always in your mind,
What are the different types of questions covered in this "STATEMENT & ARGUMENTS" topic?
Based on the types of questions asked in various competitive exams, they can be classified into the following types.
In simple language, the argument is a point of view on a particular matter supported by certain evidence.
E.g., If one says that ‘ABDE is a great batsman’, then he will put some shreds of evidence to support and prove his point of view. But someone else may have the opposite point of view i.e., “ABCDE is not a great batsman”.
In this case, the person opposing the greatness of ABCDE too will put some evidence in support of his negation. Therefore, we can firmly say that an argument may be either in favour of or against a certain subject.
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