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THE GUPTA & POST-GUPTA EMPIRE (320–550 AD) -
ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY

Origin, Founder, Facts, Characteristics features, Timeline, Political Rulers Administration, Economy, Society, Art and Culture, Literature & Notable works of Gupta & Post-Gupta Dynasty

Posted By Careericons Team

Introduction to Gupta Dynasty :

The Gupta Dynasty Era is often remembered as the Classical Age. Under the Gupta rulers, most of North India was reunited. The Gupta Empire extended from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna and Chambal, from the Himalayas to the Narmada. Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, it has been described as a Golden Age that crystallised the elements of what is generally known as the Hindu culture, with all its variety, contradiction and synthesis.

indian-polity-the-gupta-empire

The Golden Age was confined to the north, and the classical patterns began to spread south only after the Gupta Empire had vanished from the historical scene. The military exploits of the first three rulers - Chandragupta I (AD 320–335), Samudragupta (AD 335–376) and Chandragupta II (AD 376–415) - brought all of North India under their leadership.

From Pataliputra, their capital, they sought to retain political pre-eminence as much by pragmatism and judicious marriage alliances as by military strength. Despite their self-conferred titles, their overlordship was threatened and by ad 500 ultimately ruined by the Hunas (a branch of the White Huns emanating from central Asia), who was yet another group in the long succession of ethnically and culturally different outsiders drawn into India and then woven into the hybrid Indian fabric.


Origin of the Guptas Empire

The origin of the Guptas is still not clear. I-tsing, the Chinese traveller gives the first indication of the Gupta kingdom in Magadha. He visited India in 672 AD and came to know about Maharaja Sri Gupta who had got constructed a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mrigasikhavana. I-tsing provides the date for this occurrence just as 500 years ago.

The data provided by him does not match with other sources. Therefore, it is thought that his calculations were not accurate but merely a guess. The most likely date for the reign of Sri Gupta is AD 240 to 280. His successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from circa AD 280 to 319.

In contrast to his successor, he is also referred to in inscriptions as 'Maharaja'. At the beginning of the fourth century, the Guptas ruled a few small kingdoms in Magadha and Uttar Pradesh. Ghatotkacha had a son named Chandragupta. In a breakthrough deal, Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi, a Lichchhavi - the main power in Magadha.

With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Gangetic basin, modern Allahabad to modern Ayodhya and Magadha by AD 320. Chandragupta is the first of the Guptas to be referred to as 'Maharajadhiraja' or 'the King of Kings'.


List of 12 Notable Facts About the Gupta Period

1. The reunification of North India under the Imperial Guptas in AD 320 and the reign of Harshavardhana of Kanauj comprised India's classical age.

2. The Guptas established their base of imperial power in Magadha, where they controlled rich veins of iron from the Barabar Hills.

3. The peak of Gupta power and cultural glory was attained during the reign of Chandragupta II.

4. Numismatic evidence attests to the final defeat of the Shakas by the Guptas after which the Gupta Empire had direct control over the ports of the Arabian Sea and the riches of Western trade.

5. Kalidasa's Abhijnana Sakuntalam was a major literary work of this period.

6. During the Gupta era, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain faiths received royal support.

7. The Gupta era also marked the apogee of cave art and sculpture.

8. Commerce and Buddhism stimulated Indian intercourse with China and south-east Asia at this time.

9. The Gupta Empire was supported primarily by the land revenue 'share' (tax) provided by India's peasant villages from every harvest.

10. For half a century after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, North India reverted to the political fragmentation before the Guptas.

11. Yoga, one of the six schools of classical Hindu philosophy that emerged in this era, continues to be studied to this day.

12. The political system of South India should not be thought of as a group of competing, centrally developed bureaucratic states, as was the case in the North.


The Important 4 Rulers of Gupta Dynasty

Sri Gupta was the founder of the Gupta Dynasty. He ruled over parts of Bengal and at that time Gupta was a small kingdom. His son Ghatotkacha Gupta also finds a very small mention just like his father. But Chandragupta I, his son and grandson of Sri Gupta, was the first powerful Gupta emperor.

1. Chandragupta I (AD 320–335)

  1. Chandragupta I founded the empire around ad 320 in Magadha and ruled till ad 330.
  2. He was called 'the King of Kings'.
  3. He married Kumara Devi, the Lichhavi princess, and as there was no heir to the Lichhaviya throne,
  4. He merged it with his empire, which further strengthened his position.
  5. He died in ad 335 leaving his son Samudragupta a vast empire extending from Patali-Putra to Prayag.

2. Samudragupta (AD 335–375),

The successor of Chandragupta I, was known as the Indian Napolean as he never suffered defeat on the battlefield. His four main campaigns are mentioned in a pillar inscription. It was actually an Ashoka pillar and later Samudragupta added his inscription to it. Harisena, the commander-in-chief, of Samundragupta's army was the author of this edict.

The account of his campaigns is as follows:

Northern campaign - He defeated Aryavartha (nine kings of the Ganga valley - King Achutha, King Chandravarman, King Nagasena, King Balavarman, King Rudradeva, King Nandin, King Nagadatta, King Mathila and King Ganapathinaga).

Central campaign - He defeated the forest kingdoms of Jabalpur, Rewa and Nagpur. He also defeated many kingdoms of the upper Vindhya region.

Conquest of tribal kingdoms - He captured the Sunderban Kingdom, the Kamarupa and Hawaka Kingdoms (near Assam main), the Kingdom of Nepal, the Karturpura Kingdom, the Yaudheyas Kingdom (in Satluj valley), the Madraka Kingdom (on the banks of the Ravi and Chenab rivers, in Punjab) and the Arjunayan Kingdom (Rajasthan). He defeated the neighbouring kingdoms of Kabul (King Devaputra), and Ceylon (King Meghavarma).

Southern conquest - He conquered King Mahindra of Bilajpur, King Maharaja of Kowrala (both in Madhya Pradesh); King Dhananjaya of Kustalapura (Karnataka); King Vyagraraja of Mahakanthara, King Swamydatta of Kattura (both in Orissa region); King Mahendra of Pistapura, King Damana of Yarandapalli, King Hastivarman of Vengi (all in Andhra); King Vishnugopa of Kanchi, King Neelaraj of Avamukta (both in Tamil Nadu region); King Kuvera in Devarastra (Devagiri region in Maharashtra) and King Ugrasena of Palakkad (Palghat region of Kerala).

Samudragupta was not only a matchless conquerer but also an able administrator. He was also a very good poet and in many places, he is referred to as Kaviraja. He had two sons, Ramagupta and Chandragupta II. As per the records, Ramagupta was made king after the death of Samudragupta, but he was a coward and afraid of the Saka king.

He was too afraid of fighting with the Sakas when they challenged him to surrender Queen Dhruvadevi to the Saka king. It was his younger brother who saved the queen by killing the Saka king. Later, Chandragupta II married the queen and also ascended the throne.

3. Chandragupta II or Vikramaditya (AD 375–413)

  1. Chandragupta II or Vikramaditya was the son of Samudragupta and is also referred to as the Vikram of Ujjain.
  2. He removed foreign rule completely from India. He ruled for close to 40 years.
  3. He is remembered as the best Gupta ruler as he completed many of the campaigns that were left incomplete by his predecessor.
  4. Many historians term him the hero of Indian history.
  5. Pataliputra and Ujjain became prominent cities on the world map during his reign.
  6. He made Ujjain the biggest commercial city in India as he gained control of the trade routes in the Arabian Sea.
  7. India started gaining heavily from Egyptian and European contacts.
  8. He gathered wealth that made India a prosperous country for many future centuries.
  9. Books mentioned that he once filled the Kailashnath temple at Kanchi with gold.
  10. He issued many gold and silver coins, which describe the political greatness and abundance of the wealth of his empire.
  11. Nine great gems adorned his court.

Rise of Chandragupta II

Chandragupta II ruled until AD 413. He married the daughter of the king of Deccan, Rudrasena II, and gained a valuable ally.

Only marginally less war-like than his father, he expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Satraps of Malwa, Gujarat, and Saurashtra, in a campaign lasting until AD 409, but with his main opponent, Rudrasimha III defeated by AD 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms.

This extended his control from coast to coast, established a second (trading) capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire. Despite the creation of the empire through war, the realm is remembered for the great growth in Hindu art, literature, culture, and science, especially during the reign of Chandragupta II.

Note: Fa-hien (AD 399–411), a Chinese traveller, has written about India during the reign of Chandragupta II. He came from China to study the original Buddhist texts and was greatly infl uenced by the superior architecture and political greatness Chandragupta II provided to India.

4. Kumaragupta I

  1. Kumaragupta I Also called Mahendraditya, Kumaragupta ruled the Gupta Empire from the period AD 414 to 455.
  2. The Bildad inscription is the oldest record of his reign and it dates to Gupta, year 96, which corresponds to AD 415.
  3. The last known date of his reign occurs on an inscription on one of his silver coins, corresponding to AD 445.
  4. Towards the end of his reign, a tribe in the Nerbudda valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire.
  5. Kumaragupta's successor Skandagupta defeated this threat but then was faced with invading Huns from the north-west.
  6. The expense of the wars drained the regime and Skandagupta is usually considered the last of the great rulers.
  7. He died in AD 480 and was succeeded by his son Narasimhagupta.
  8. Much of the empire was overrun by the Huns by AD 500.
  9. Narasimhagupta was followed by Buddhagupta and Purugupta.
  10. The last recognised ruler was Vishnugupta, reigning from AD 540 to 550.

Coins of Kushana Dynasty

  • The Kushana ruler used their coinage to establish and highlight their own superiority.
  • The idea of showing the ruler on the coins was not popular in India.
  • All the previous dynasties minted coins depicting only symbols.
  • The Kushana rulers popularised this idea which remained in use for the next 2,000 years.
  • The coinage system developed by the Kushanas was copied by the later Indian dynasties such Guptas, as well as by the neighbouring rulers such as Sassanians (of Persia).
  • It is very unfortunate that very little evidence of the Kushana rule could be found today.
  • Perhaps, the coins are the only evidence we have of this illustrious dynasty. Kushana coins tell so much about the images of the kings.
  • The coins tell us how the rulers wished to be seen by their subjects.
  • The portraits on the Kushana coins of Vima Kadphises are surprisingly individualistic.
  • He is often depicted as a full-bearded, big-nosed, fierce-looking warrior chieftain, perhaps with a deformed skull, wearing a high helmet, tunic, overcoat and boots.

Features of the Gupta Dynasty

The Gupta Dynasty is called the Golden Age of the Sanskrit language and the Classical Age of ancient India because of the following:

  1. There was political unity; foreign rule was completely removed and peace and prosperity prevailed.
  2. Of the enlightened character of the government, that is, taxes were light, punishment mild, etc.
  3. Of the revival of Hinduism, while there was tolerance of all other religions.
  4. Use of Sanskrit developed, and art and literature flourished during the period.
  5. Of the great personages who lived during this period includes Kalidasa, poet and dramatist known as the Shakespeare of India; Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the great mathematicians and astronomers; Kumarila Bhatta and Shankaracharya, the great preachers of Hinduism and Dhanwantri, the great physician.
  6. Fa-Hien, a Chinese pilgrim who visited India (AD 399–414) during Vikramaditya's reign, gave an excellent account of the Gupta Dynasty and the prosperity of the country

Art and Architecture of Sunga and Andhra Dynasties

  • The earliest extant stupas date from the Sunga Dynasty (second to first century BC) and early Andhra Dynasty (first century BC).
  • These relic mounds are surrounded by railings and gateways covered with carved ornaments.
  • One of the main stupas is at Bharhut.
  • Relief medallions of Buddha's life or of the jatakas (tales of his previous lives) are a shallow cut, with all the incidents of each story arranged within a single composition.
  • The bodies of semi-divine beings including yakshas (female tree spirits) are flattened against the pillar of which they form part; prana was still emphasised.
  • The important stupa at Sanchi shows a similar style.
  • Important carvings on the gateways of another stupa at Sanchi date from the early Andhra period.
  • The yakshas have acquired full, graceful forms and high relief compositions are frequently conceived in a continuous method of narration.
  • The carved railing from Bodh Gaya, the place of Buddha's enlightenment, and the earliest surviving wall paintings are also early Andhra; paintings in the rock-cut cave at Ajanta narrate Buddha's birth as an elephant and the entire synopsis of historic life. In the far south, in the Deccan, the later Andhra Dynasty continued to flourish into the first century AD.
  • Its greatest monument is the carving at the Great Stupa at Amaravati.
  • The complex but coherent composition, the chiaroscuro, and the liveliness of the crowded surfaces distinguish these bas-reliefs.

LATER GUPTAS (or) POST GUPTA PERIOD

KINGS, ROLES, FEATURES, ADMINISTRATION & NOTABLE WORKS WITH AUTHORS NAME

Chandragupta II had two queens, Dhruvadevi and Kuberanaga. Govindagupta and Kumaragupta I were the two sons of Chandragupta II from the first queen and a daughter Vakataka were from his second queen.

Kumaragupta I ascended the throne after his father Chandragupta II, in ad 414. Although not many details of his reign are available, he ruled for close to 40 years during which he performed the Ashvamedha yajna, which indicates his military success. Towards the end of his life, the Gupta Empire was under constant threat of invasion by the Hunas rulers. He died in ad 455. His son, Skandagupta Vikramaditya (AD 455–467), succeeded him. But Skandagupta had to face a political crisis, because of the threat from the other heirs to the throne, during his 12 years of reign.

The Gupta Empire became brittle from within because of the political unrest and this opportunity was utilised by the invading Hunas ruler. Skandagupta is reported to have repulsed with equal vigour and strength to save the empire. But this was a temporary setback for the Hunas who invaded again and succeeded in the long run. The heavy expenses incurred on the wars and civil unrest depreciated the Gupta currency. This coupled with the repeated Huna attacks became the prime reason for the collapse of the Gupta Empire.

The later Guptas were Puru Gupta, Narasimha Gupta, Baladitya, Kumara Gupta II, Tathagata Gupta or Vainya Gupta, Kumara Gupta III and Vishnu Gupta. By ad 512, the Huna king Toraman and his son Mihiragula became powerful and controlled central India for some time. By then the descendants of the Gupta Dynasty ruled only a part of Pataliputra as several states that were merged with the Gupta Empire had become independent.

After Vishnu Gupta, the empire collapsed, and its fragmented remnants existed here and there, till they too, finally disappeared from the historical map of India by the end of the sixth century AD. After the decline of the Gupta Empire, another line of kings with names ending with 'Gupta' rose in the Magadha region. However, there is no evidence of their genealogical relationship with that of the Imperial Guptas. The Vallabhai in Gujarat, the Gowda-padas in Bengal and the descendants of Pushyabhuti in Sthaneshwar became independent. Simultaneously, another line of Mukhari kings emerged in the northern Ganges plains of Kanauj.

Out of the chaos emerged the powerful kingdom of Sthaneshwar. Towards the end of the century, the Makari dynasty, Mukharis defeated the Guptas and captured the entire Magadha region. The Guptas then moved towards the east, where they came under the influence of King Prabhakaravardhana (Harsha's father) of Thanesar (Kannauj).

The last king in the Makuhari Dynasty, Ghrahavarman, died without heirs and Kanauj passed to his brother-in-law Harsha (whose reign is discussed later). When Harsha's Empire fell, the Guptas again emerged under King Aditysen (AD 675), but they were finally defeated by another Maukahri King of Kanauj, Yasovarma, in the eighth century.


Important Characteristics Features of Gupta & Post-Gupta Dynasty

Gupta Administration :

Much light is thrown on the nature of Chandragupta Vikramaditya's administration by Fa-Hien's narrative and inscriptions that have hitherto been discovered. Vikramaditya himself was a devout Vaishnvite but had appointed many people from other sects in high posts in his court.

His counsellor (mantrin) Shikaravamin and his minister of peace and war (Saba-Virasena) were Saivitis. His commander-in-chief, Amarakarddava, was a Buddhist. However, regarding the machinery of administration, we do not have many details.

But various inscriptions detail the following facts:

  • The king, raja, was mostly nominated by his predecessor. The king was regarded as a divinity - Achintya Purusha (or Incomprehensible Being) and DhanadaVarunendrantakasama, which means equal to Kuvera, Varuna, Indra and Yama, as well as Loka dhama deva (meaning a God dwelling on earth).
  • He is assisted by the Chief Minister, Sachiva or Mantri, who was the chief advisor to the king. The post of Sachiva was also determined by heredity. There was further a central council of ministers, also called Mantri Parishad, but the existence of local parishads has also been proved by a Barash seal discovered by 'Bloch'.
  • The entire empire was divided into a number of provinces called desas, bhuktis, etc., which were further subdivided into districts called pradesas or vishayas. The desas were governed by officers called Goptris and the bhuktis were usually governed by Uparikas or Uparika Maharaja.
  • The heads of vishayas were called Vishyapatis. These districts were further divided into mandals, which were again subdivided into khomas.
  • The village panchayats, which were autonomous bodies, were pivotal in handling the daily administrative affairs of the village. The Purupala or Nagaragakshaka looked after the administration of towns and cities.
  • But Parishads, the municipal councils or committees, were also an important element in the machinery of the local government.

Important 32 Terms & Meanings of Gupta Administration

  1. King - Paramadvaita, Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja, Samrat, Chakravartin
  2. Chief Minister - Sachiva, Mantri (King's Advisor )

Military Officers:

  1. Commander–Infantry - Bhatasvapati
  2. Commander–Elephant corps - Katuka
  3. Chief Treasury War Office - Ranabhandagaradhikarana
  4. Chief of Army - Senapati, Baladhyaksha - Mahabaladhyksha
  5. Foreign Minister - Sandhivigrahika or Mahasandhivigrahika Superintendent of Central and Provincial Offices - Saravadhyakshas
  6. Commercial Royal Officers - Dutaka (dutas)
  7. Chief of Police - Dandapasadhi karana
  8. Other Police Officers - Chauroddharanika (for thieves), Chatas, Bhatas, Dandaparika, etc.
  9. Provincial Administration Officers - Kumaramatyas and Ayuktas Governor of Province - Uparikas, who governed Bhukti's (provinces)
  10. Other Officers of Province - Bhogika, Gopta, Rajasthanias, Uparika-maharaja
  11. Districts of Province and its Head Officer - Vishayas headed by Vishayapatis
  12. Headquarter of District - Adhishthana
  13. District Magistrate - Samvyavahari and Ayuktakas
  14. Village Elders - Maharattanas
  15. Office In-charge of Families - Asthakuladhi-Karanikas in the local area (minimum eight families)
  16. Village Headman - Gramika
  17. Tax Collectors - Utkhetayita
  18. Forest and Forts In-charge - Gaulmika
  19. Brahmin Settlements In-charge - Agriaharika
  20. Land Revenue Head Officer - Dharuvadhikaranika
  21. Treasurer - Bhandagaradhikrita
  22. Village Accountant - Talavataka
  23. Record Keeper and Notary Authority - Pustapala
  24. Customs and Toll Collector - Saulvika

The Advisory District Council mainly constituted of four members,

  1. Chief, the Guild President - Nagarasreshthi
  2. The Head Merchant - Sarthavaha
  3. The Head Artisan - Prathamakulika
  4. The Head Scribe - Prathamakayastha
  5. Mayor of the City - Purapala
  6. Important Officers of the Royal Courts - Parthiharas and Mahaparthiharasa

Gupta Arts & Culture

During the Gupta age, the Nagara and the Dravida styles of architecture were prominent. Rock-cut caves, with novel ornamentation and designs, were also excavated during this period. The art of painting reached a high level during this era. Gupta artists mostly painted incidents from the life of Buddha. Notable works are in the caves at Ajanta and Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh (Madhya Pradesh) and Udayagiri (Orissa).

The painting of Mother and Child at Ajanta demonstrates the art of the painters during this era. Originally, most of the 39 caves at Ajanta had paintings, but now only 6 caves with paintings survive. The Ellora cave temples were started during the Gupta period. However, work on them continued during the reigns of the Vakatakas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas. Out of the 34 Ellora caves, only 12 caves are Buddhist, while three are Jain and 15 are Hindu.

They built a large number of high stupas in Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh), Ratnagiri (Orissa) and Mirpur Khan (Sindh). Gupta architecture is also represented by many brick temples in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bengal, Bihar and Assam. The most famous is the temple at Bhitargaon (near Kanpur) with moulded and decorated bricks. Incidents from Hindu mythology are inscribed all over the walls and then the pyramidal roof of this temple.

Another important temple with 40 ft high towers is the Dashavatara temple near Deogarh. Many of the buildings of this era were demolished by the Muslim invaders who came later. Notable stone sculptures of the Guptas include the Buddha at Sarnath and the great boar (Varaha) at the entrance of the Udayagiri caves; metal sculptures include the Nalanda Buddha, an 18 ft statue in Nalanda, Bihar and the Sultanganj Buddha, a 7½ ft statue in Sultanganj.


Gupta Literature

The most significant achievements of this period, however, were in religion, education, mathematics, art and Sanskrit literature and drama. The religion that later developed into modern Hinduism witnessed a crystallisation of its components: major sectarian deities, image worship, devotionalism and the importance of the temple.

Education included grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine and astronomy. These subjects became highly specialised and reached an advanced level. The numeral system - sometimes erroneously attributed to the Arabs, who took it from India to Europe where it replaced the Roman system - and the decimal system is Indian invention of this period.

Aryabhatta's expositions on astronomy in ad 499, moreover, gave calculations of the solar year and the shape and movement of astral bodies with remarkable accuracy. In medicine, Charaka and Sushruta wrote about a fully evolved system, resembling those of Hippocrates and Galen in Greece.

Although progress in physiology and biology was hindered by religious injunctions against contact with dead bodies, which discouraged dissection and anatomy, Indian physicians excelled in pharmacopoeia, caesarean section, bone setting and skin grafting.

Sanskrit Literature Mahabharata and Ramayana were given the last touch in this era as it saw the last phase of Smriti literature. Sanskrit was the official language. The Puranas were composed during this era, containing information on Hindu sects, rites and customs in the classical Sanskrit language.

Buddhist literature was translated from Pali to Sanskrit. Notable writers include names like Arya Deva, Arya Asanga, Vasubandhu and Dignage. Vasubandhu is known for the first book on logic, a Buddhist work. Jain literature Jain works were mainly in Prakrit dialects. Vimala (who wrote the Jaina version of translated Ramayana) and Divatara (author of a book on logic) are notable writers. Itihas and Puranas were also translated into Jaina versions.


Other 25 Notable Works with Authors of the Gupta Era

  1. Kaviraja by Samudragupta;
  2. Shakuntala, Malavikagnimitra, Meghaduta, Vikramorvashi, Rutusamhara etc., by Kalidasa;
  3. Amarakosa by Amarsimha;
  4. Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit grammar based on Panini's work;
  5. Mahabhashya, Sanskrit grammar based on Patanjali's work;
  6. Chandravyakaranam, book of grammar by a Bengali Buddhist scholar Chandragomia;
  7. Surya Siddhanta by Aryabhatta, deals in the study of the solar system;
  8. Aryabhattiyam by Aryabhatta, a study of arithmetic, geometry and algebra;
  9. Brahmasphuta Siddhanta and Khanda Khadyaka by Brahmagupta deal with the principle of gravity;
  10. Brihat Samhita, Pancha Siddhantika, and Brihat Jataka by Varahamihara deal with astronomy, physical geography, botany and natural history;
  11. Navanitakam by Varahamihara is a manual of prescriptions for metallic preparations (using iron and mercury) for medicinal purposes;
  12. Hastyayurveda by Palakapya deals with veterinary science and animal husbandry;
  13. Ghokoki, a travelogue on India, by Fa-herein;
  14. Parmanasamuchchya by Dignana;
  15. Mahayanasampraigrah, Yogachara and Bhumashastra by Asaga;
  16. Vasavadatta by Subandhu;
  17. Uttararamacharita, Malathi Madhva and Mahaveera-Charita by Bhavabhuti;
  18. Mrichacatika by Shudraka, a drama on clay craft;
  19. Mudraraksha by Vishakhadatta, is a play dealing with the king Chandragupta Maurya. Kiratharjuneeya by Bharavi;
  20. Vishnupurana, Shivapurana and Bharthuharishataka by Bharthuhari;
  21. Dhutavakya, Swapanavasavadata, Pratignayougandarayana and Madhyamavyayoga by Bhasa;
  22. Vedas Devanagri, a compilation of four Vedas in Devanagari script on palm leaves in ad 500 by Vasukra (as chief editor);
  23. Ravanavadha (Bhattikavya) by Bhatti;
  24. Kamasutra, Nyayabhashya by Vatsayana; and
  25. Kavyadarshna, Avanthisundarikata by Dandi.

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Number System Questions Test PDF For SSC STENO C & D 2024

Free New Number System Aptitude-based multiple choice questions and answers practice test series. Online Quiz PDF for SSC Stenographer (Grade C, D) 2024 Exam

12-Apr-2024 by Careericons

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