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Indus Valley Civilization

Extent Centers Periods Basic Features Econmical Religious Social Political Life Workship Survival & Decline of IVC people

Nov 22, 2021 By Careericons


The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.

Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from today's northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.

It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along with a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Excavation of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in Punjab and Sind, now in Pakistan, awarded the world with an ancient most advanced civilization contemporary to Egypt, Mesopotamia and Sham civilisation of China.

Some of the most important "Features" found in Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient Indian History



Religious life of IVC People

  1. Harappan people had features of Hinduism, such as worship of the Mother Goddess, Pashupati, Shiva, Sacred animals, trees, etc.
  2. Clay figures of the mother goddess as the symbol of fertility have been found.
  3. The three-faced deity wearing a horned headdress, seated cross-legged on a throne, and surrounded by elephant, tiger, buffalo and rhinoceros, with deer appearing under the seat is the representation of Lord Shiva.
  4. Marshall has discovered some conical and cylindrical stones which indicate phallic worship, i.e. lingam worship. Similarly, on the basis of small ring stones, Marshall suggested the female generative organ (yoni) which indicate the worshipping of the Mother Goddess.
  5. At Kalibangan, fire altars have been discovered.
  6. We do not find any tracer of temples or places for worship at any of the Harappan sites.

Worship of IVC People

  1. Harappans believed in animal worship. The animals fall into three groups :
    1. Mythical animals or complex animals, e.g. a semi-human, semi-bovine creature
    2. Ambiguous creature, e.g. the strand unicorn accompanied with manager or incense-burner and
    3. Actual animals include the rhinoceros, the bison, the tiger, the humped bull, etc.
  2. The most common animal found on the Harappan seals is the bull which has been referred to as 'a unicorn'. 
  3. The cow is not depicted or introduced anywhere.
  4. Tree worshipping was a culture in this civilization. Pipal tree was the most worshipped tree.
  5. Indus people believed in armlets and Talisman. On a seal, a six-rayed motif is depicted signifying the sun. Clay models of oxen were used as motive offerings. Tablets of clay and copper were used as armlets.
  6. Swastik and cross signs were harbingers of good luck.
  7. Daya Ram Shahni has discovered the famous dancing girl called ‘Devadasi’ which is depicted on a seal.
  8. The offering of animals in sacrifice was a Harappan practice which has been discovered by Mohenjodaro and Kailbangan. In a ‘fire altars bovine, bones and outliers were discovered which represent some kind of animal sacrifice.

Economic life, Agriculture, Animal Husbandary, Political & social Life of "INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Poeple" will be posted in detail as sperate bolgs prvioded in the follwoing links

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